Taylor Glacier Blood Falls Geomicrobiology

Summary

Abstract: 

Blood Falls, a subglacial discharge from the Taylor Glacier, Antarctica provides an example of the diverse physical and chemical habitats available for life in the polar desert of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Geochemical analysis shows that Blood Falls outflow resembles concentrated seawater remnant from the Pliocene intrusion of marine waters combined with products of weathering. The result is an iron-rich, salty seep at the terminus of Taylor Glacier, which is subject to episodic releases into permanently ice-covered Lake Bonney. Blood Falls influences the geochemistry of Lake Bonney, and provides organic carbon and viable microbes to the lake system. Presented here is the first data on the geobiology of Blood Falls, and relate it to the evolutionary history of this unique environment. The novel geological evolution of this subglacial environment makes Blood Falls an important site for the study of metabolic strategies in subglacial environments, and the impact of subglacial efflux on associated lake ecosystems.

Date Range: 

September 1, 1999 to March 16, 2004
Data Citation
Mikucki, J. 2015. McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER: Taylor Glacier Blood Falls Geomicrobiology. Environmental Data Initiative. DOI: 10.6073/pasta/dc7b513f0ae8a640ef186df53ff02b6c. Dataset accessed 15 October 2019.
Dataset(s)

Description: 

Bloodfalls Geomicrobiology Summary: Samples were collected from subglacial outflow waters associated with Blood Falls discharge during austral summers from 1999-2003. Samples near the outlet of Blood Falls were collected for enumeration and bacterial activity in December of 2000 and 2001. A transect of samples (TransX) was collected in December (see Figure 1), 2002 to capture a profile of releases from Blood Falls into Lake Bonney, starting at the source of the outflow (Trans1) and out onto the moat ice surrounding the lake with increasing distance from the source (Trans2-5). Trans2 was collected from basal ice below the source, Trans3 was collected from waters at the shoreline where Blood Falls meets the moat ice, Trans4 was collected 5 m from the shoreline just below moat ice that melted and refroze daily, and Trans5 was collected under 0.4 m of moat ice approximately 70 m from the shoreline before the moat ice meets the permanent ice cover of Lake Bonney.

Variables (click to expand): 

Sample Location
  • Label: Sample Location
  • Definition: Sample Location
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
pH
  • Label: pH
  • Definition: pH
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: pH
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = none detected or not available
DO (uM O2)
  • Label: DO (µM O2)
  • Definition: Dissolved oxygen (DO) was determined by Winkler titration.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values: None specified
Eh (mV)
  • Label: Eh (mV)
  • Definition: Conductivity was measured at 1-meter depth intervals in the west lobe of Lake Bonney using a Seabird SBE-25 conductivity temperature depth (CTD) sensor (Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc., Bellevue, Washington).
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: millivolt
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = not detected or not available
DIC (uM)
  • Label: DIC (µM)
  • Definition: Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was measured by infrared gas analysis on acid sparged samples.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = none detected or not available
DIN (uM)
  • Label: DIN (µM)
  • Definition: Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) was reported as the summation of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium (DIN = NO3-+ NO2-+ NH4+).
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = not determined or not available
SRP (uM)
  • Label: SRP (µM)
  • Definition: Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was determined on 10 ml samples with the antimony-molybdate method (Standard Methods, 1992), absorbance was read in a 10 cm cell with a Beckman DU-640 spectrophotometer.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = none detected or not available
DIN:SRP (uM)
  • Label: DIN:SRP
  • Definition: The ratio of DIN to SRP. Useful for looking a phosphorus deficiency.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • ND = none detected or not available
DOC (uM C)
  • Label: DOC (µM C)
  • Definition: Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was measured on filtered (25mm Whatman GF/F), acidified (HCl to pH~2-3) samples with a Shimadzu 5000 TOC analyzer.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = not detected or not available
CHL (ug per L)
  • Label: CHL (µg per L)
  • Definition: Chlorophyll-a (CHL) was extracted into 90% acetone for 24 h at <0 °C in the dark from particles collected on a Whatman GF/F filter, and the subsequent concentration was determined fluorometrically.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: microgramsPerLiter
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = none detected or not available
Bacteria (cells per mL)
  • Label: Bacteria (10^4 cells per mL)
  • Definition: Environmental (in situ) cell abundance as determined on 0.2 μm-filtered samples.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: cellsPERmL
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = none detected or not available

File: 

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Description: 

Bloodsfalls Microbial Activity Summary: Bacteria at the source of Blood Falls incorporated thymidine into TCA-insoluble products at an average rate of 1.5 x 10-3 nM d-1. There was considerable variation between the samples, with rates ranging from 0.4 to 3.0 x 10-3 nM d-1 (SD = 1.1 x 10-3). Thymidine incorporation experiments were used to compute cell doubling times ranging from 37 to 54 days at 0 °C. The effect of temperature on leucine incorporation was determined at 0 °C, 5 °C, 10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C . The activation energy (Ea) over the range of temperatures tested, and the Q10 for metabolic activity between 0 and 20 °C were 8764 kcal mol-1 and 1.74, respectively.

Variables (click to expand): 

DATASET_CODE
  • Label: DATASET_CODE
  • Definition: Code to designate the table name
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
DATE_TIME
  • Label: Date
  • Definition: Date the sample was collected.
  • Type: Date/time
  • Date format: MM/DD/YYYY
  • Missing values: None specified
Temperature
  • Label: Temperature
  • Definition: Temperature in C
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: celsius
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values: None specified
3H-Thymidine incorporation
  • Label: 3H-labeld Thymidine incorporation
  • Definition: Nanomol per doubling time of incorporated 3H-labeld Thymidine
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: nM d-1 x 10-3
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values: None specified
3H-Leucine incorporation
  • Label: 3H-labeld Leucine incorporation
  • Definition: Nanomol per doubling time of incorporated 3H-labeld Leucine
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: nM d-1
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values: None specified
Doubling time
  • Label:
  • Definition: Doubling time, in whole numbers.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: dimensionless
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values: None specified

File: 

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Description: 

Bloodfalls Subglacial Release Geochemistry Summary: The chemistry of Blood Falls was first sampled by Hamilton et al. in 1958 and again by Black et al. in 1962 (Hamilton et al., 1962 and Black et al., 1965). However, in these studies, the researchers sampled the salt precipitates, or the salt cone that formed around the terminus of the Taylor Glacier, they did not sample true, unaltered outflow. Keys (1979) collected the first detailed chemical data in 1978 on what he described as a discharge of saline icing at Blood Falls.†Since the inception of the McMurdo LTER in 1992, flow from Blood Falls has been sampled routinely, providing over a decade of chemical data (data available in this site). It is clear from these geochemical data that the source water of Blood Falls is marine in origin (Lyons et al., 1998, 1999) and that the release of ancient subglacial fluid is episodic in nature resulting in complex and dynamic chemistry of waters sampled at Blood Falls (Lyons et al., 2005).

Variables (click to expand): 

DATE_TIME
  • Label: Collection Date
  • Definition: Collection Date
  • Type: Date/time
  • Date format: MM/DD/YYYY
  • Missing values: None specified
Temp
  • Label: Temperature
  • Definition: Temperature
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: celsius
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = not available
pH
  • Label: pH
  • Definition: pH as measured with a calibrated Beckman 12 pH meter
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: dimensionless
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = Not available
DOC
  • Label: DOC (µM)
  • Definition: Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was measured on filtered (25 mm Whatman GF/F) acidified samples with a Shimadzu 5000 TOC analyzer.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = not available
DIC
  • Label: DIC (mM)
  • Definition: Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was measured by infrared gas analysis on acid sparged samples.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = not available
DO
  • Label: DO (mM)
  • Definition: Dissolved oxygen (DO) was determined by Winkler titration.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = not available
Cells
  • Label: Cells (1x10^5)
  • Definition: Cell counts of 10mL outflow samples
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: counts
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = not available
%live
  • Label: %live
  • Definition: Percentage live cells in outflow samples
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: percent
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = not available
Cl-
  • Label: Cl- (mM)
  • Definition: Cl- concentration
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = not available
SO42
  • Label: SO4 2- (mM)
  • Definition: SO4 2-
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values: None specified
SO4:Cl
  • Label: SO4:Cl
  • Definition: The ratio of SO4 to Cl
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = not available

File: 

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Description: 

Bloodfalls Geomicrobiology Transect Data

Variables (click to expand): 

Sample
  • Label: Sample
  • Definition: Sample
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
pH
  • Label: pH
  • Definition: pH
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: pH
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
Cell density
  • Label: Cell density
  • Definition: Cell density
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: cells per mL
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
CFUs R2A
  • Label: CFUs R2A
  • Definition: Count of colony forming units on R2A media.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: count
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
CFUs Mar
  • Label: CFUs Mar
  • Definition: Count of colony forming units on Mar media.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: count
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
Fe
  • Label: Fe (µM)
  • Definition: Fe (µM)
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
Chl-a
  • Label: Chl--a (µg/L)
  • Definition: Chlorophyll- a (CHL) was extracted into 90% acetone for 24 h at <0 °C in the dark from particles collected on a Whatman GF/F filter, and the subsequent concentration was determined fluorometrically.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
DIC
  • Label: DIC (mM)
  • Definition: Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)as measured by infrared gas analysis on acid sparged samples.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
DO
  • Label: DO (µM)
  • Definition: Dissolved oxygen (DO) was determined by Winkler titration.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
DOC
  • Label: DOC (µM)
  • Definition: Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was measure on filtered (Whatman GF/F) and acidified samples with a Shimadzu 5000 TOC analyzer.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: molarity
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
DIN
  • Label: DIN (µM)
  • Definition: DIN
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: microMoles
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
Na+
  • Label: Na (mM)
  • Definition: Sodium concentration as measured according to the protocol of Welch et al. (1996).
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: milliMoles
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
Cl-
  • Label: Cl (mM)
  • Definition: Chloride concentration as measured according to the protocol of Welch et al. (1996).
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: milliMoles
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not availalbe
SO42-
  • Label: SO42- (mM)
  • Definition: Sulfate concentration as measured according to the protocol of Welch et al. (1996).
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: milliMoles
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
Ca2+
  • Label: Ca2+ (mM)
  • Definition: Calcium concentration as measured according to the protocol of Welch et al. (1996).
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: milliMoles
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available
Richness
  • Label: Richness
  • Definition: Richness calculated from the 16S rRNA clone library.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: milliMoles
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values:
    • na = not available

File: 

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Short name: 

jillsthesis

Dataset ID: 

77
People

Principal Investigator(s): 

Contact: 

Associated Personnel: 

Associated Researcher
Associated Researcher
Data Manager