Geochemistry of aeolian material from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Insights into Southern Hemisphere dust sources

TitleGeochemistry of aeolian material from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Insights into Southern Hemisphere dust sources
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsDiaz, MA, Welch, SA, Sheets, JM, Welch, KA, Khan, AL, Adams, B, McKnight, DM, Cary, CS, W. Lyons, B
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Date Published10/2020
Keywordsaeolian material, Antarctica, major oxides, mineralogy, rare earth elements, trace elements

In the Southern Hemisphere, the major sources of dust and other aeolian materials are from Patagonia, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Dust from Patagonia and New Zealand has been identified in ice cores throughout Antarctica, suggesting that during arid and windy periods, such as glacial periods, dust can be entrained and transported onto the continent. However, little information exists on modern Antarctic dust sources, transport, and its role in the Southern Hemisphere dust cycle. We present the first geochemical characterization of aeolian materials collected at five heights (between 5 cm and 100 cm) above the surface in four valleys within the McMurdo Dry Valleys, the largest ice-free area in Antarctica. Our mineralogy data indicate that these materials are primarily derived from local rocks of the McMurdo Volcanics, Ferrar Dolerite, Beacon Sandstone and Granite Harbor Intrusives, with varying contributions of each rock type dependent on the valley location. While major oxide, trace element and rare earth element data show that low elevation and coastal locations (with respect to the Ross Sea) are dominated by local sources, high elevation and inland locations have accumulated both local materials and dust from other distant Southern Hemisphere sources. This far-traveled material may not be accumulating today, but represents a paleo source that is resuspended from the soils. By geochemically “fingerprinting” aeolian materials from the MDV, we can better inform future studies on the transport of materials within Antarctica and between Southern Hemisphere land masses.