hyporheic zone

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Dynamics in Green Creek, January 1995. Field and Modeling data


McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, contain numerous glacial meltwater streams that drain into lakes on the valley floors. Many of the streams have abundant perennial mats of filamentous cyanobacteria. The algal mats grow during streamflow in the austral summer and are in a dormant freeze-dried state during the rest of the year. NO3 and soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations were lower in streams with abundant algal mats than in streams with sparse algal mats.  Here we describe and distribute the data associated with this study:
An experimental injection of LiCl, NaNO3, and K3PO4 was conducted in Green Creek, which has abundant algal mats. Substantial hyporheic exchange occurred. 
A model in which PO4 uptake occurred only in the main channel and NO3 uptake occurred in the main channel and in the hyporheic zone. 
Green Creek (Gooseff, 2015) aerial flowing into Fryxell

LTER Core Areas: 

Dataset ID: 


Associated Personnel: 


Data sources: 

Green Chl NO3 PO4


Field data collection
A continuous tracer injection containing K3PO4, NaNO3 and LiCl was initiated on January 13, 1995. Water samples were collected at 4 locations downstream (50, 226, 327, and 497 m downstream of the injection)..
Field sample analysis
Nutrient samples were analyzed using a Lachat Quickchem autoanalyzer with a detection limit of 0.04 microM. Samples were analyzed for lithium and chloride using a atomic absorption spectrometer and a ion chromatograph, respectively.
Model approach
Physical transport parameters were developed by fitting an advection-dispersion-storage model to observed chloride breakthrough curves. First-order uptake rate coefficients were subsequently developed by fitting an advection-dispersion-storage-uptake model to the N and P data.
Modeling code used
Study consisted of both flow and transport modeling. A kinematic wave model based on DR3M was used to develop a time-series of flow and cross-sectional area. These time series were used as input to the OTIS solute transport model. The routing model is not publically available (although DR3M is at http://water.usgs.gov/software/DR3M/ ); OTIS is available at: http://water.usgs.gov/software/OTIS/
OTIS Model input files:
We provide copies in a zip file in the data sources section of this metadata.
Flow routing input files are not available.
Software Title: Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model version II
Authors: W.M. Alley, P.E. Smith and D.R. Dawdy
Publication Date: 1982
Software Description: DR3M is a watershed model for routing storm runoff through a Branched system of pipes and (or) natural channels using rainfall as input.  DR3M provides detailed simulation of storm-runoff period selected by the user.  There is daily soil-moisture accounting between storms.  A drainage basin is represented as a set of overland-flow, channel, and reservoir segments, which jointly describe the drainage features of the basin.  This model is usually used to simulate small urban basins.  Interflow and base flow are not simulated.  Snow accumulation and snowmelt are not simulated
Citation:  Alley, W.M., and Smith, P.E., 1982, Distributed routing rainfall-runoff model--version II: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-344, 201 p.
Documentation:  http://water.usgs.gov/software/DR3M/code/UNIX/README
Data Requirements: Daily precipitation, daily evapotranspiration, and short-interval precipitation are required.  Short-interval discharge is required for the optimization option and to calibrate the model.  These time series are read from a WDM file.  Roughness and hydraulics parameters and sub-catchment areas are required to define the basin. Six parameters are required to calculate infiltration and soil-moisture accounting.  Up to three rainfall stations may be used.Two soil types may be defined.  A total of 99 flow planes, channels, pipes, reservoirs, and junctions may be used to define the basin.
Output options: The computed outflow from any flow plane, pipe, or channel segment for each storm period may be written to the output file or to the WDM file.  A summary of the measured and simulated rainfall, runoff, and peak flows is written to the output file.  A flat file  containing the storm rainfall, measured flow (if available), and simulated flow at user selected sites can be generated.  A flat file for each storm containing the total rainfall, the measured peak flow (if available), and the simulated peak flow for user-selected sites can be generated.

System Requirements:  DR3M is written in Fortran 77 with the following extension: use of include files. The UTIL, ADWDM, and WDM libraries from LIB are used. A subset of these libraries is provided with the code and may be used instead of the libraries, this subset uses INTEGER*4 and mixed type equivalence. For more information, see System Requirements in LIB.

Software Title: One-Dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage,
Authors: Robert Runkel
Publication Date: 1998
Software description: OTIS is a mathematical simulation model used to characterize the fate and transport of water-borne solutes in streams and rivers. The governing equation underlying the model is the advection-dispersion equation with additional terms to account for transient storage, lateral inflow, first-order decay, and sorption. This equation and the associated equations describing transient storage and sorption are solved using a Crank-Nicolson finite-difference solution.
OTIS may be used in conjunction with data from field-scale tracer experiments to quantify the hydrologic parameters affecting solute transport. This application typically involves a trial-and-error approach wherein parameter estimates are adjusted to obtain an acceptable match between simulated and observed tracer concentrations. Additional applications include analyses of nonconservative solutes that are subject to sorption processes or first-order decay. OTIS-P, a modified version of OTIS, couples the solution of the governing equation with a nonlinear regression package. OTIS-P determines an optimal set of parameter estimates that minimize the squared differences between the simulated and observed concentrations, thereby automating the parameter estimation process.
Citation  Runkel, R.L., 1998, One-Dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage (OTIS): A Solute Transport Model for Streams and Rivers: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4018, 73 p.



Jan, 2014 - Mike Goooseff and Rob Runkel provided Inigo San Gil metadata and CSV files to produce this metadata accompanying 
Oracle data tables from metadata info.
Nov 2015 -- Published in MCM site using DEIMS.

Additional information: 

Notes about the modeling software  --  The flow routing i/o files do not seem to be readily available (the code Rob Runkel used to flow routing is not public, so the input files would be of little use)
>Representative Figure :; See "n_and_p_dyn_results.jpeg" in attached or linked thr
ough the "otherEntity" section of this metadata<


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